Bhadrapad Krishna 9, Vik.Samvat 2074, Yugabda 5119: August 16, 2017
1. FESTIVALS: Sharadiya Navaratra, the nine nights of worship of Durga, are the first nine days of the Shukla paksha of the month of Ashwina, corresponding to September 21 to 29 this year.At one stage, the Gods felt powerless against the onslaughts of the demonic forces headed by Mahishasura. In answer to their prayers, they were ordered to part with a portion of their divine powers to form into a new Goddess. It was thus that Mahishasura Mardini, took a physical form as the combined might of 33 crore Gods. Mahishasura was slain by Chamundeshwari after a ceaseless fight of nine days and nights. Could there be a more telling message to the present-day disorganized Hindus - many of them individually good and pious but who have remained incapable of overcoming the forces inimical to them and their culture? Truly has it been said, ‘Sangheshaktih kalau yuge’- Organisation holds the key to strength in Kaliyuga.
Navaratras are followed by Vijaya Dashami, the festival of victory of good over evil. Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Rashtra Sevika Samiti, both were started on this day in 1925 and 1936 respectively. Vijaya Dashami is celebrated in both of them with Patha Sanchalan, Shastra Poojan and Bauddhiks etc. - GoTop
2. Rashtrapatiji to the Rashtra: New Bharat Must Be Compassionate, Inclusive. Rashtrapati Shri Ram Nath Kovind pitched for a partnership between citizens and the government to create a New Bharat by 2022 that is a "compassionate society" and includes the "humanist component integral to the nation's DNA". In his maiden address to the Nation on the eve of 71st Independence Day, Kovind remembered the role of leaders of Independence struggle including Jawaharlal Nehru.
"The stress on the moral basis of policy and action, belief in unity and discipline, faith in a synthesis of heritage and science, and promotion of the rule of law and of education all of it is located in a partnership between citizen and government," he said.
"There are so many people and organisations that work quietly and diligently for the poor and the disadvantaged. We should also work with unity and purpose to ensure that the benefits of government policies reach all sections of the society," he said.
He said a New Bharat means some obvious parameters like a house for every family, power on demand, better roads and telecom, a modern railway network, rapid and sustained growth.
"And yet there is more. New Bharat must include that integral humanist component that is in our DNA, and which has defined our country and our civilization. New Bharat must be a society rushing towards the future, but also a compassionate society," Kovind said.
The single most critical factor for building our nation is to equip our coming generation. We need to ensure that not one child is left behind. As such I would urge you, as fellow nation builders, to help educate underprivileged children in our society, he said. Rashtrapatiji urged people to help at least one child other than their own get educated by enrolling in school, paying their fees and buying them books.- GoTop
3. PRADHAN MANTRIJI LAL QILE SE: Pradhan Mantri Shri Narendra Modi unfurled the national flag and addressed the nation from the ramparts of the Red Fort on the 71st Independence Day. He recalled the great women and men who worked hard for Bharat's freedom. He said the people of Bharat stand shoulder to shoulder with those affected due to natural disasters, and the tragedy in Gorakhpur. Pradhan Mantriji noted that the current year is special, because it marks the 75th anniversary of the Bharat Chhodo Movement; the 100th anniversary of Champaran Satyagraha; and the 125th anniversary of the celebration of Saarvjanik Ganesh Utsav inspired by Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
called for an end to the 'chaltahai' attitude of complacency, and its
replacement with an attitude of 'badalsaktahai' for positive change. Shri
Narendra Modi said that Bharat's security is our priority, and the surgical
strike had underscored this. He added that Bharat's stature in the world is
rising, and several countries are cooperating with Bharat in fighting the menace
of terrorism. On demonetization, he said that those who have looted the nation,
and the poor, are not able to sleep peacefully, and honesty is being celebrated
today. He asserted that the fight against black money will continue, and
technology will help bring about transparency. He encouraged people to further
promote digital transactions.
Pradhan Mantriji described the implementation of GST as a key illustration of cooperative federalism. He emphasized that good governance is about speed and simplification of processes. On Jammu and Kashmir, Pradhan Mantriji emphasized that neither abuses, nor bullets, but only embracing, can solve the problems in the State. (Na gaali se, na goli se, parivartanhoga gale lagaane se).
Describing his vision for New Bharat, Pradhan Mantriji said that people would be the driving force behind the establishment, rather than the other way around Tantra se Lok nahin, Lok se tantra chalega. He appreciated the farmers and the agriculture scientists for record crop production this year. Pradhan Mantriji said the changing nature of technology is resulting in the requirement of different skill-sets for employment. He also added that the youth is being nurtured to become job-creators, and not job-seekers.
Mentioning women who have to suffer due to Triple Talaq, Pradhan Mantriji said that he admires the courage of those who have stood up against this practice, and added that the nation stands with them in their struggle. Pradhan Mantriji said Bharat stands for peace, unity, and harmony. He said casteism and communalism will not help us. He strongly condemned the use of violence in the name of faith, and said this will not be accepted in Bharat. He said the call of the Quit Bharat Movement was Bharat Chhodo," but the call today is Bharat Jodo."
Pradhan Mantriji said significant attention is being paid to the development of eastern and north-eastern Bharat. He said the Government has taken Bharat on new tracks of development, without slackening pace. He called for a New Bharat where the poor would have houses, and access to water and electricity; where farmers would be free from worry, and would earn twice of what they earn today; youth and women would get ample opportunities to fulfil their dreams; a Bharat free from terrorism, communalism, casteism, corruption and nepotism; and aBharat which is clean and healthy. - GoTop
4. Vishwa Sangh Shikha Varg Concluded: Vishwa Sangh Shiksha Varg (DwitiyaVarsh) and Vishwa samiti shiksha varg (Dwitiya and Tritiya Varsh)were held separately at Nagpur.The course for men was organized at Suraburdi - Nagpur from 15th July 5th August. A total of 65 participants from 13 countries including USA, Europe, Guyana, and Australia took part in various activities like Yoga, traditional Bharatiya games, discourses on Hindu culture and heritage etc. The course for women was organized at Smriti Mandir Parisar, Reshimbag from 20th July to 5th August. A total of 47 participants from 5 countries took part in the course.
The course for sevikas (women) was formally inaugurated on 20th July. Padmashree Kalpana Saroj, was the Chief Guest for the program and she gave an inspiring address. RashtraSevika Samiti PramukhSanchalika Shantakka spoke at the occasion where she appealed to all the participants to gather as much knowledge as possible from various activities of the course. Therewere several sessions like discourses, group discussions and workshops on Bharatiya tradition, role of women in society, contemporary global challenges and Hindu thought etc. A visit to seva projects including Shakti Peeth, National Cancer Institute, Jamthaand and a visit to a village near Ajni to give insight about village life was also arranged. RSS Sarsanghachalak Mohan Bhagwat also paid a visit to the varg.
Both the courses separately organized path sanchalan programs on 29th July. It was welcomed enthusiastically by the residents of Nagpur where men and women marched in unison on the tunes of the band on the streets of Nagpur.
The course for men was at a picturesque location at Suraburdi where the participants enjoyed the scenic natural beauty and excellent arrangements making their daily routine of the course most joyful. Besides physical programs like Yoga, traditional Bharatiya games and Lezim, the participants had an opportunity to see the demonstration of the games like Aatya - Patya, Kabaddi and Kho-Kho. A visit to Nagalwadi village was the most memorable one as the participants saw firsthand the development of the village with cemented roads, underground drainage system etc. They were overwhelmed by the warm welcome of the villagers and the hospitality of every household they visited. One of the participants Viswajeet said, "I can really see the change in villages and rising Bharat as I am visiting Bharat for the past 20 years."
There were sessions on Sanskrit speaking, Vedic mathematics, Ancient Bharatiya science and also lecture on Geeta and Karmayog, Triguna Personality quotient etc. At night, there used to be light games and song and skit competitions. The age group the course was from 17 to 45 and all enjoyed the varg in a brotherly atmosphere.
A public program was organized jointly for the two courses on 4th August at Reshimbag. The program started with ceremonial welcome to the Chief Guest Bibek Debroy and report presentation of the courses by Adv Alok Kumarji, Course In charge for the men’s course. The physical demonstrations from both men and women participants included yogasan, pyramids and other techniques. The audience enthusiastically cheered the demonstrations especially that of Lezimby the women participants.
The dignitaries on the daiswere Shri Bibek Debroy, RSS Sarsanghachalak Dr. Mohan Bhagwat, RashrtraSevika Samiti Pramukh Sanchalika Shantakka, Course In charge for men Adv. Alok Kumar and Course Incharge for women Sushree Kirtida Bhat.
Shri Bibek Debroy emphasised and elaborated on the meaning of Dharma, the principles of Dharma and its importance in life of a Bhartiya. He said that Karma and Dharma are related and the people who feel that Dharma that is the principles can be removed from the lives of people of Bharat are wrong in their thought. RSS Sarsanghchalak Dr. Mohan Bhagwat spoke about the vision of Dr. Hedgewar behind starting Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, the emergence of Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh and the necessity of it for the world. He said that Dr. Hedgewar used to say that "the reason behind the problems of Hindus is the Hindu society itself and hence it is necessary for the Hindu society to fix those problems."
Dr.Bhagwat said when we try to fix these problems, we do so because we consider the society as our very own, there is "aatmiyata" in doing so. We try to help not because we think we are great or the society needs our help, we help because of the feeling of oneness and the need to empower the Hindu society. Whenever we go into the root cause of the problems faced by the world, it is found to be the destruction of Dharma. Bharat can lead the path for the betterment of world, since it is Bharat which has Dharma in its soul.
Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh grew because of the efforts of the Swayamsevaks who went abroad and the next generations which kept the work going on. The first such Shakha was started in Kenya. The impact of Sangh is such the societies of the respective countries have realized the need for this kind of work.
Recently, a similar effort has been initiated by taking inspiration from HSS. He concluded by saying that, it is the Hindu society which has the potential to lead the world and in true sense the Hindu Samaj is getting united to lead the World. - GoTop
5. SANGH SEWA: Heavy rains in Rajasthan and Gujarat in the last week of July have caused huge devastation. As the floods started displacing people, the Sangh Swayamsevaks reached the spot with food packets and drinking water. The Swayamsevaks collected food packets from the families of Pali, Rani and Sanderao and distributed among the flood victims in many villages of Rajasthan.
In Gujrat, the swayamsevaks joined relief acitivities at Banaskantha, Patan, Radhanpur and Ahmedabad areas. Taking benefit of the weather forecast system, they timely alerted the people in 125 villages and shifted them to the safe places and distributed 2, 10,000 food packets and drinking water pouches in affected areas.
6. Build Ram Temple at Babri Masjid site, Shia board tells Supreme Court: The Uttar Pradesh Shia Wakf Board has urged the Supreme Court to mediate in the Ayodhya issue and suggested that a Ram temple be built at the disputed site and a mosque in a nearby Muslimdominated area as a way out of the acrimonious court battle over the land. The board, which is not a party to the Ayodhya title suit, said also the two structures should not be contiguous to prevent any future incidents of discord and disharmony. It called upon the top court to mediate between the warring parties: currently the Sunni Central Wakf Board, the Nirmohi Akhara and the deity, who has been named as a party to the case and represented by a VHP leader. - GoTop
7. WORKSHOP ON SANSKRIT AND VEDAS IN JAPAN: Dr Ram Vaidya, sah samyojak Vishwa Vibhag and a renowned Sanskrit scholar, conducted a lecture titled "Essence of Indian Philosophy" to inaugurate the VCC - Vivekanand Cultural Center Workshop on Sanskrit and Vedas for August - September 2017 at BharatiyaDootaavaas in Japan on August 10. MsMuanpuiiSaiawi, FS (IEC) & Dir (VCC) welcomed the audience, after which Dr Ram Vaidya spoke on various facets of Bharatiya philosophy. The programme was well-attended by over 60 VCC students. - GoTop
8. THE RAMAYAN RECITED AT THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT: In an event hosted by Bob Blackman MP, organised by Lakshmi Kaul and attended by Michael Ellis MP, Deputy Leader of the House of Commons, as well as Matthew Offord MP, Richard Harrington MP, Royston Smith MP and David Tredinnick MP, in the first week of August, Dhruv Chhatralia gave a powerful and mesmerising recital of the Ramayan. The speech of two hours, covering an in-depth commentary of the Ramayan from beginning to end took six years to research, compile and perfect with the love of a devotee and the meticulousness of a lawyer.
Dhruv said that the holy verses of the Ramayan contain the secrets to success in life that bestow intelligence, strength and virtue to all those who contemplate and meditate upon it. - GoTop
9. HSS volunteers visited elected and public Officials to tie Rakhi: Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh, USA (HSS) reached out US Congressmen and local public officials during the month of August to celebrate Raksha Bandhan and spread the message of communal harmony and that of social service. HSS celebrates Raksha Bandhan as Universal Oneness Day where our individual responsibilities towards the society are remembered.
This year, HSS volunteers greeted Congressman Frank Wolf, 10th district VA, Congressman David G Reichert's Office, 8th district WA, Congressman Jim Moran, 8th district, VA, office of Congresswoman Renee Ellmers, second district of North Carolina, and Congresswoman Judy Biggert, of 13th Congressional volunteers and children. Everyone appreciated this festival, the unique message it brings along with and as well as social service HSS offers. - GoTop
10. UK armed forces celebrate Raksha Bandhan: The UK Armed Forces Hindu Network organised Raksha Bandhan celebrations in the lead up to Rakshabandhan festival at the Ministry of Defence in London besides a tour of several temples in Newcastle, Swindon, Liverpool, and London. "As we exchange our multi-coloured bands, it's a unique opportunity to remind ourselves of the multifaceted ties that bind our great Hindu community and our Armed Forces together. To defend ourselves we must unite: speaking up for those beliefs of tolerance, fairness and dignity, that make us who we are," said UK defence minister Earl Howe.
Serving personnel from the Armed Forces and ministry of defence (MoD) had a Rakhi tied to their wrist during recent festivities at the MoD headquarters in London. - GoTop
11. Soon ‘Tricolor’ set to get unfurled on Moon: Bharat will launch twin Moon missions from its own soil in early 2018. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will launch its Chandrayaan-2 mission and another mission by Team Indus, a group of space enthusiasts who want to unfurl the Tricolour on the moon's surface as part of a global lunar competition.
ISRO Chairman, Kiran Kumar said that these two missions are different from each other and will even use different instruments. Team Indus will use a PSLV to launch its lunar spacecraft, whereas Chandrayaan 2 will launch via GSLV MK II. - GoTop
12. SHRI VISHWA NIKETAN: Pravas: Shri Saumitra Gokhale, samyojak Vishwa Vibhag returned to USA after the pravas to Singapore and Indonesia. Shri Ravikumar sahsamyojak will return to Bharat after touring Thailand and Singapore. Dr Ram Vaidya sah samyojak returned to UK after the pravas of Japan. Visitors:Suraj Dhanpaul. Sainarain Satoo, Chitramattie Dhanraj Guyana, Dillon Shah and Mahesh Chhiba UK. - GoTop
FOOD FOR THOUGHT: Perform all work carefully, guided by compassion. – Bhagwad Geeta - GoTop
JAI SHREE RAM
A BHARAT IN CAMBODIA
Prof C Upender Rao
Cambodia is officially known as Kingdom of Cambodia and is one of the environmentally rich countries situated in South East Asia. Cambodia and India posses a long relation from ancient time.
The arrival of Indian scholars in Cambodia improved the Cambodian culture in very ancient period Cambodia was known as Kambuja-desa. Isanapura was its capital city in the 7th century A.D. But from 9th to 13th centuries the Angkor Empire had flourished with its new capital 'Yasodharapura' near the present day Slam Reap City. Cambodia has a magnificent past. The only reliable source to know its history is the stone inscriptions and luckily most of them were collected during the French rule in Cambodia. The language used in most of these stone inscriptions was Sanskrit, which was widely used in India during that period. These Sanskrit inscriptions are the real source to reconstruct the history of Cambodia. The inscriptions in ancient Kambuja constitute the most valuable information of Sanskrit and Sanskrit based Indian culture, they serve like epigraphic records of Bharat. They are the only evidence for recognising the flourishing situation of Sanskrit language and literature in Cambodia which is situated far off from India. They suggest about the survival of Indian language and culture for more than 800 years. A large number of Sanskrit inscriptions have been found all over the Cambodia from 5th to 14th century A.D.
Number of Sanskrit inscriptions published as far back as 1885 and many other came into the notice of scholars from time to time especially after the foundation of the 'Ecole Francaised'Extreme orient' in 1900. But for many years, scholars, mainly Indians were unaware of this fact. Ironically, the study of ancient Indian culture in south-east Asia is still in its infancy in India. This happened mainly due to the fact that the research of recent past, ongoing and other information which gained momentum during the French rule was mainly developed in French and other foreign languages like Dutch and these languages are not known to most of the Indian scholars. The other reason being the lack of well established academic relations between Southeast Asia and India may be due to the political compulsions of many countries, especially of Cambodia in Southeast Asia. The only popularly known foreign language in India is English, in which a little information was available about the Southeast Asia, till some years ago.
Most of the Sanskrit inscriptions found in Cambodia are Saivite in character but some belong to Vaisnava and few of them belong to Buddhist texts also, though it sounds surprising as Buddhism is the main religion in Cambodia now. Indeed, these inscriptions prove the fact of association of Hindu traditions by royal families of Cambodia.
Even today the Buddhism is the state religion of Cambodia. We must understand that all these Sanskrit inscriptions were basically prepared by the Royal families and therefore obviously Saivism and Vaisnavism are the significant themes of these inscriptions.
Saivism and Vaishnanvism
All Sanskrit inscriptions of Cambodia reveal the Indian culture and civilization in all aspects. When Indian teachers and kings reached and settled in Kambuja in 1stcentury A.D. the local people were almost semi-savages without wearing their cloths, but gradually Indian social and religious ideas got deeply implanted in them. They started worshiping Siva, Visnu and Buddha. The interesting fact is that they worshipped Visnu and Buddha side by side, and this system continues even today in Cambodia.
Many religious sects of India like, Bhagavatha, Pancaratra and Pasupata were prevalent in Cambodia. The Devadasi system and caste system were also there. Vedangas and Upavedas and other Vedic literature were studied in Kambuja. The adaption of purely Indian names was prevalent among not only kings and nobles but also among common people of the society.
The baying temple inscriptions dated 546 A.D. engraved on a single face of a sandstone stele contains 12 Sanskrit verses composed in Vamsastha, Upajati, Vaitalikaand Anustubh metres. The inscriptions record the pious works of a brahmana named Vidyavindu who was a grandson of Dhruva and Dhruva Punyakirti. The complete rendering of the inscription is not available as some fragments of verses were dilapidated. But the word Dhruva Puny-akirti appears to be an epithet.
The Sdokakthom stele inscription of King Udayadityavarman is historically an important inscription among all Kambuja inscriptions, it relates to the history and religious foundation of a priestly family for two centuries and a half (902-1052 A.D.) and incidentally gives account of various things of this priest family and the details starting from Jayavarman II to Udayadityavarman II. This inscription was edited by Finot. The temple sdokakthom stele is 15 miles away from Sisophon. The inscription contains 192 lines in Sanskrit, 29 likes in khmer followed by 2 lines in Sanskrit and 117 lines in Khmer. The Sanskrit text consists of 110 verses; the meters which were used to compose this inscription are Sloka, Indravajra, Upendravajra, Malini etc. Several facts can be revealed by the intense study of this inscription and several names of Hindu Gods can be found in it. The inscription starts with a salutation to God Shiva –"Namahsivayastuyadatmabhave…" in verse no. 4 it also mentions the God Visnu.
His majesty Paramasivaloka founded the town of Yasodharapura. Then the king erected the central mountain Vamasiva, the preceptor installed the linga in it with the aid of Royal service and informed the King. He was anxious to make another foundation and requested the King to grant him a land in Varnavijaya close to Bhadragiri which belonged to Sten an rudracarya. He founded their villages called Bhadrapattana and Bhadravasa. The King gave him the linga more than two cubits high of the central mountain to be installed at Bhadrapattana. He also gave an image of Bhagavati which was installed in the country of Bhadravasa in the land of Bhadrapattana. In the kingdom of Sri Suryavarman interestingly, he installed the images of Sankara (Lord Shiva), Sarngi (Visnu) and Saraswati (Goddess of education) in Bhadrapattana following the rules of Sanskrit scriptures, and worshipped them for a long period.
In this way the entire Sdokakthom stele inscription of Udayadityavarman is full of the descriptions of various Hindu Gods and Goddesses and Tantrism and the use of actual tantric texts which are well known in India.
The Sanskrit inscriptions were found in many countries but those found in Kambuja are indeed the extraordinary compositions as they were written in a beautiful and impeccable Sanskrit Kavya style. It is not difficult to understand the Sanskrit scholars, who were living in Kambuja, and their thorough acquaintance with different meters of Sanskrit practices. The Vat Thipedi inscription of Isanavarman II dated 832 A.D. is a fine example of this. The Vat Thepedi (Adhipathi in Sanskrit) is a name of a small temple in the district of Siem Reap. This inscription is written in Sanskrit and contains 19 verses in it.
After invocation of Siva, Visnu, Brahma and Uma, it continues a eulogy of King Yasovarman (He ascended the throne in 811 A.D. of Saka era) and of his two sons Harsavarman I and Isanavarman II. These three kings and highly honoured a learned ascetic named, Sikhasiva whose learning and virtues are highly described in this inscription.
The Vat thipedi inscription of Isanavarman II offers a good specimen of Gaudi style (Gaudi-riti of Sanskrit poetics). The French scholar G. Coedes had regarded the author to be the inhabitant of Gauda region. The exquisite Kavya style can be found in the following verses of the inscriptions-
anganapaghanallnga-linardhangayasambhave… verse 1
Laksmistanamukhaklista-kasanaksama-candanam --- verse 2
Dhvanta-dhvad-dvedanadarddhi-medhasevedhasenamah …. Verse 3
In eastern Baray stele inscription of Vasovarman, we can find figures of speech used in many verses e.g. one of the verses of this inscription explains the composer’s profound knowledge of Sanskrit poetics.
Which means the fires of anger etc. could not venture to disturb the mind of Siva as if they are afraid by the waters of river Ganges which is on his head. Here, we can find figure of speech named Utpreksa. According to Sanskrit poetics the words: manya, sanke reveal Utpreksa and the world iva also capable of revealing Utpreksa.
King Yasovarman was described as a conqueror of Poet Pravarasena. Poet Pravarasena and his famous Prakrt poem, 'Setubandha' are very phenomenal in Indian Prakrt literature. By this we can understand that not only Sanskrit even Prakrt has entered from India to Kambuja.
In Pre Rup stele inscription of Rajendravarman dated 883 A.D. (edited by G. Coedes) (I C - 73) one can find many references of Vedic scriptures. It testifies to an intimate knowledge of literature on the part of the author. Apart from allusion to epic and Puranic legends and mythology there are evident references to Atharvavada, Ramayana, Mahabharata and Panini. One of the verses reveals the knowledge of Atharvaveda which its composer possessed.
Yamyogyamatharvanikiva-siddhih .. verse 94
Like wise, Vedas, Vendangas and Upangas were mentioned in various verses of Sanskrit inscriptions of Kambuja.
Ramayana and Mahabharata
In the same Pre Rup stele inscription of Rajendravarman dated 883 A.D. we can find the references of Ramayana and Mahabharata. The enemies of the king were afraid like the demon Marica was afraid of Rama. In another verse of the same inscription the legend of Mahabharata can be found. In this verse all important names of warriors of Mahabharata are revealed like; Yudhisthira, Bhisma, Duryodhana etc. Also a subsequent verse reveals the legend of Mahabharata.
The Pre Rup stele inscription of Rajendravarman dated 883 A.D. reveals the knowledge of puranas in many places describing the qualities of the King Rajendravarma. The author of the inscription says that in which way Lord Krishna had protected the cows by lifting a mountain named Govardhana steadily in the same way the King had ruled the earth.
Vyakarna, the science of grammar is considered to be the most important science in ancient India (prathme hi vidvarhsovaiyakaranah etc - Anandavardhana in the 1st Udyota of Dhvanyaloka). The Pre Rup stele inscription of Rajendravarman dated 883 A.D. also gives the profound knowledge of Sanskrit grammar of its composer. Describing the qualities of the king the poet says.
In this verse the poet describes the method of ruling the way of the King giving the example of Paribhasa sutra of grammar. This inscription begins with the eulogy of Lord Siva, Brahma, Vasudev and Narayana. The Sdokkakthom stele inscription of Udayadityavarman consists of 130 Sanskrit verses composed in various meters were used.Some of the meters used in this inscription are Sloka, Indravajra, Upendravajra, Malini, Aupacchandasika, Vasantatilaka, Puspit-agra and Samavrtta. Likewise, Pre Rup stele inscription of Rajendravarman also consists of many Sanskrit meters such as Vamsastha, Upajati, Vasantatika, Mandakranta, Sardulavikridita, Sragdhara and arya.
The four Eastern Baray inscriptions of kind Yasovarman were written in North Indian script. Each one of these inscriptions contain the 108 verses. They have many parameters of Asramas in which fresh arrivals from India lived and they were not acquainted with the local script of Kambuja and therefore they followed their own script. Such migrations were depicted in several inscriptions. (The writer is Professor of Sanskrit and Pali, Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, JNU) - GoTop